beta
Matična publikacijaPsihologijske teme (Online)
Materijalni opisGraf. prikazi.
Način izrade datotekeizvorno digitalna građa
Vrstačlanak
OpisThe study was designed to investigate whether a level of cognitive reserve (CR) is associated with a level of cognitive competences in adults. Evidence from numerous earlier studies suggests that high CR, defined as previously acquired knowledge and experience, plays a protective role with respect to cognitive capacities in adults and senior citizens. Hence, it was hypothesised that a lower CR would predict lower cognitive capacities. The study involved 120 Polish healthy adults (75 women and 45 men) ranging in age from 40 to 85 years (M = 57.42; SD = 10.48). The applied CR index took into account formal education level, involvement in social, occupational and physical activity, and level of social support. The recorded data also included depression level (Beck Depression Inventory, BDI II) and cardiovascular status (hypertension: yes / no). The subjects’ current cognitive competences were assessed using Montreal Cognitive Assessment test (MoCA), Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) subtests, verbal fluency tests and Dysexecutive Questionnaire, self-report version (DEX-S). Based on the subjects’ scores in cognitive tests, a cluster analysis was performed, and the participants were divided into two groups presenting lower cognitive level (LCL) and higher cognitive level (HCL). The LCL subjects were older than HCL and they had higher level of depression and lower CR. In order to determine whether lower level of CR is related to lower level of cognitive abilities in the adults, logistic regression analysis was carried out, also taking into account age, cardiovascular status and depression level. It was shown that the higher level of CR reduced the risk of cognitive deficits. Older age corresponds to poorer cognitive function. The findings showed no interaction between CR and age. Depression and health status did not predict level of cognitive abilities.Cilj je ovog istraživanja bio ispitati je li kod odraslih ispitanika kognitivna zaliha povezana s razinom kognitivne kompetencije. Rezultati brojnih prethodnih istraživanja uputili su na zaštitnu ulogu velike kognitivne zalihe, operacionalizirane prethodno usvojenim znanjem i stečenim iskustvom, za očuvanje kognitivnih kapaciteta odraslih i starijih ljudi. U skladu s time, hipoteza je ovog istraživanja bila da će manja kognitivna zaliha predviđati niže kognitivne sposobnosti u odrasloj dobi. U istraživanju je sudjelovalo 120 zdravih odraslih ispitanika iz Poljske (75 žena i 45 muškaraca) raspona dobi od 40 do 85 godina (M = 57.42; SD = 10.48). Indeksom kognitivne zalihe obuhvaćena je razina formalnog obrazovanja, uključenost u socijalne, profesionalne i tjelesne aktivnosti te razina socijalne podrške. Također, prikupljeni su podaci koji se odnose na razine depresivnosti (Beckov inventar depresije) te kardiovaskularni status. Kognitivne kompetencije ispitanika ispitane su korištenjem Montrealske ljestvice kognitivne procjene, suptestova Wechslerova testa inteligencije za odrasle, testova verbalne fluentnosti i samoprocjenom izvršnih funkcija. Na temelju rezultata na testovima kognitivnih sposobnosti ispitanici su podijeljeni u skupine s nižom i s višom razinom kognitivnog funkcioniranja. Ispitanici s nižom razinom kognitivnog funkcioniranja bili su stariji, imali su višu razinu depresivnosti i manje kognitivne zalihe u usporedbi s ispitanicima s višom razinom kognitivnog funkcioniranja. S ciljem ispitivanja jesu li manje kognitivne zalihe povezane s nižim kognitivnim sposobnostima, provedena je logistička regresijska analiza. U obzir je pritom uzeta dob, kardiovaskularni status i razina depresivnosti ispitanika. Rezultati su pokazali da veća kognitivna zaliha smanjuje rizik od kognitivnih poteškoća. Starija dob povezana je sa slabijim kognitivnim funkcioniranjem, no nije dobivena interakcija kognitivne zalihe i dobi.
  
rrep