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NaslovImpact of pumpkin seed oil and coffee treatment on the characteristics of semi-hard cheese / Marijana Blažić, Elizabeta Kralj, Marija Agičić, Irena Perković, Ivana Kolić.
Materijalni opisGraf. prikazi.
Način izrade datotekeizvorno digitalna građa
Vrstačlanak
OpisSemi-hard cheese was made from fresh domestic cow milk and treated with pumpkin seed oil and coffee during its ageing. The energy value and composition of the cheese were examined by determining the content of dry matter, minerals, proteins, fat, caffeine and fatty acids. During the ageing period, the cheese was dipped into a sweet, freshly-prepared, high-quality coffee drink and coated with a mixture of milled coffee grains and cold pressed pumpkin seed oil to improve the sensory properties of the cheese, but also to improve its nutritional value. It is considered that treated cheese could have greater nutritional and pro-health properties then untreated cheese, due to nutritional and healing properties of pumpkin seed oil and coffee used during the maturation period. Pumpkin seed oil contains carbohydrates, minerals, proteins, and important unsaturated fatty acids, while coffee is rich in antioxidants and helps in the prevention of type 2 diabetes, Parkinson's and Alzheimer's disease, and high cholesterol. To determine the impact of the treatment, the fatty acid and caffeine contents were determined by the GC-FID and the UPLC-DAD method. The cheese treated with pumpkin seed oil and coffee had a higher amount of unsaturated fatty acids (UFA) and a lower amount of saturated fatty acids (SFA) than the untreated cheese. The proportions of long-chain UFA, such as the C18:2n6c (Omega 6) and the C18:3n3 (Omega 3), were higher in the treated cheese than those in the untreated cheese, as well as the C20:1, the C22:2 and the C24:1, which were not detected in the untreated cheese. Caffeine concentration in the treated cheese was 33.08 mg/L.
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NaslovMikotoksini aflatoksini i okratoksini : prijetnja sigurnosti tradicionalnih mesnih proizvoda / Jelka Pleadin, Ana Vulić, Irena Perković, Nina Kudumija, Tina Lešić, Maja Kiš, Manuela Zadravec, Mario Mitak.
Materijalni opisIlustr.
Vrstačlanak
OpisTijekom dugotrajnog zrenja površinu trajnih tradicionalnih mesnih proizvoda (TMP) uobičajeno obrastaju plijesni. Među njima, toksikotvorne vrste produciraju sekundarne metabolite mikotoksine, koji imaju izrazite štetne posljedice po zdravlje ljudi i životinja. Aflatoksini i okratoksini imaju dokazane karcinogene i mutagene učinke u organizmu, a njihova pojavnost u TMP najčešće je posljedica prekomjernog rasta površinske plijesni. Osim ovim izravnim putem, mikotoksini u TMP mogu biti prisutni i neizravno, putem kontaminirane stočne hrane, čija uporaba na farmskim životinjama rezultira prijenosom (carry-over efektom) u finalne mesne proizvode. Zbog učestalosti kontaminacije važan je razvoj potvrdnih analitičkih metoda za detekciju mikotoksina te primjena metoda za identifikaciju površinskih plijesni. Kako bi se spriječila kontaminacija TMP i mogući štetni učinci po zdravlje potrošača, potrebno je poduzeti sve preventivne radnje i provoditi sustavnu kontrolu ovih kontaminanata. Ovaj rad daje pregled svojstava aflatoksina i okratoksina kao mikotoksina od najvećeg značaja za pojavnost u mesnim proizvodima, plijesni koje ih produciraju te metoda detekcije, prevencije i redukcije kontaminacije TMP.Mycotoxins aflatoxins and ochratoxins - a threat to the safety of traditional meat products During long-lasting ripening, the surface of dry traditional meat products (TMP) is usually owergrown by moulds. Among them, toxicogenic species produce mycotoxins as secondary metabolites, which have significant adverse effects on human and animal health. Aflatoxins and ochratoxins have proven carcinogenic and mutagenic effects in the body, and their occurrence in TMP is the most common consequence of overexpression of surface moulds. In addition to this direct route, mycotoxins in TMP may also be present indirectly through contaminated animal feed, whose use in farm animals results in carry-over effects in final meat products. Due to the frequency of contamination, development of confirmatory analytical methods for mycotoxin detection and the application of surface moulds identification methods is important. To prevent TMP contamination and possible adverse effects on consumer health, all preventive actions should be taken and systematic control of these contaminants should be undertaken. This paper gives an overview of the properties of aflatoxins and ochratoxins as mycotoxins of the greatest importance for the occurrence of meat products, the moulds which produce tham and the methods of detection, prevention and reduction of TMP contamination.Mykotoxine Aflatoxine und Ochratoxine - eine Gefahr für die Sicherheit traditioneller Fleischprodukte Während einer langen Reifung wird die Oberfläche traditioneller Dauerfleischprodukte (TMP) normalerweise durch Schimmelpilze befallen. Unter ihnen produzieren toxikogenetische Spezies Mykotoxine als Sekundärmetabolite, die sich sehr nachteilig auf die Gesundheit von Mensch und Tier auswirken. Aflatoxine und Ochratoxine haben im Körper nachweislich karzinogene und mutagene Wirkungen; ihr Auftreten in Dauerfleischprodukten ergibt sich am häufigsten aus einem übermäßigen Wachstum von Schimmelpilzen. Neben diesem direkten Weg können Mykotoxine in Dauerfleischprodukten auch indirekt durch kontaminierte Futtermittel vorhanden sein, deren Verwendung bei Nutztieren zu Verschleppungseffekten in Fleischerzeugnissen führt. Aufgrund der Häufigkeit der Kontamination sind die Entwicklung von Analyseverfahren zum Nachweis von Mykotoxinen und die Anwendung von Methoden zur Identifizierung von Oberflächenschimmel von großer Bedeutung. Um eine Fleischkontamination und mögliche nachteilige Auswirkungen auf die Gesundheit der Verbraucher zu verhindern, sollten alle vorbeugenden Maßnahmen ergriffen und eine systematische Kontrolle dieser Kontaminanten vorgenommen werden. Diese Arbeit gibt einen Überblick über die Eigenschaften von Aflatoxinen und Ochratoxinen, die als Mykotoxine von größter Bedeutung für das Auftreten in Fleischprodukten sind, die Schimmelpilze, die diese produzieren, sowie die Methoden zum Nachweis, zur Verhinderung und Verringerung der Kontamination von Dauerfleischprodukten.Micotossine aflatossine e ocratossine – una minaccia alla sicurezza dei tradizionali prodotti a base di carne Nel corso del lungo processo di stagionatura, la superficie dei tradizionali prodotti secchi a base di carne (TPC) viene solitamente ricoperta di muffa. Tra esse, le specie tassicogene producono metaboliti secondari delle micotossine che hanno conseguenze estremamente nocive per la salute dell’uomo e degli animali. Le aflatossine e le ocratossine hanno comprovati effetti cancerogeni e mutageni nell’organismo, e la loro presenza nei TPC è il più delle volte conseguenza dell’eccessiva crescita delle muffe superficiali. Oltre che direttamente, le micotossine possono essere presenti nei TPC anche indirettamente, mediante il mangime contaminato assunto degli animali, il cui impiego in zootecnia comporta la trasmissione (effetto carry-over) nei prodotti finali a base di carne. A causa della frequenza delle contaminazioni, è importante lo sviluppo dei metodi analitici di conferma per la rilevazione delle micotossine e l’applicazione del metodo per l’identificazione delle muffe superficiali. Per prevenire la contaminazione dei TPC e i possibili effetti nocivi per la salute del consumatore, è necessario adottate tutte le misure preventive e eseguire un controllo sistematico di questi agenti contaminanti. Questo studio dà un quadro delle proprietà delle aflatossine e delle ocratossine quali micotossine di maggior rilievo per la loro presenza nei prodotti a base di carne, delle muffe che le producono e dei metodi di rilevazione, prevenzione e riduzione della contaminazione dei TPC.Micotoxinas aflatoxinas y ocratoxinas – la amenaza para la seguridad de los productos cárnicos tradicionales Durante la larga maduración, la superficie de los productos cárnicos tradicionales crudo-curados (PCT) normalmente está cubierto de molde. Entre ellos, los tipos de molde toxicogénicos producen las micotoxinas como metabolitos secundarios, los cuales tienen efectos sumamente adversos sobre la salud humana y animal. Las aflatoxinas y ocratoxinas tienen efectos carcinogénicos y mutagénicos en el organismo comprobados su manifestación en los PCT en general es la consecuencia del crecimiento excesivo del molde sobre la superficie. Además de esta manera directa, las micotoxinas pueden aparecer en PCT indirectamente a través del pienso contaminado usado para los animales de granja y a través del efecto residual (carry-over effect) en los productos cárnicos finales. Debido a la frecuencia de la contaminación es importante desarrollar los métodos analíticos confirmatorios para la detección de las micotoxinas, y la aplicación de los métodos de identificación de los moldes en la superficie. Para evitar la contaminación de los PCT y posibles efectos nocivos sobre la salud de los consumidores, es necesario tomar medidas de prevención y llevar a cabo un control sistemático de estos contaminantes. Este trabajo da un resumen de las propiedades de las aflatoxinas y ocratoxinas como tipos de micotoxinas de mayor importancia para la manifestación en los productos cárnicos, de los moldes que les producen y de los métodos de detección, de prevención y de reducción de la contaminación de los PCT.
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NaslovToxicogenic fungi and the occurrence of mycotoxins in traditional meat products / Manuela Zadravec, Ksenija Markov, Jadranka Frece, Irena Perković, Željko Jakopović, Tina Lešić, Mario Mitak, Jelka Pleadin.
Materijalni opisIlustr.
Način izrade datotekeizvorno digitalna građa
Vrstačlanak
OpisDuring ripening, the surface of dry traditional meat products (TMPs) becomes overgrown by fungi of the Penicillium spp., Aspergillus spp. and Eurotium spp. whose spores mostly come from the environment in which the ripening chambers are placed. Certain fungi species is often responsible for the occurrence of toxic compounds termed the mycotoxins, among which of the outermost importance in connection with meat products are aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and ochratoxin A (OTA). Besides, some other mycotoxins such as citrinin (CIT), cyclopiazonic acid (CPA) and sterigmatocystin (STC) can also be present, but their impact on the quality and safety of meat products, and therefore also on human health, has still not been fully clarified. As control and prevention of toxicogenic fungi growth are key factors to the prevention of mycotoxin presence in dry-cured TMPs, levels of mycotoxin contamination, mycotoxin-producing mould species and factors of relevance for mycotoxin production, such as climate, should be determined.
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3 (1-10)