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NaslovMikrobiološki i kemijski parametri ribe i školjkaša / Iva Čanak, Ksenija Markov, Ana Gavrilović, Petra Bosanac, Jurica Jug-Dujaković, Željko Jakopović, Deni Kostelac, Jadranka Frece, Jelka Pleadin.
Materijalni opisIlustr.
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OpisRezultati brojnih istraživanja ukazuju na to da ribe i školjkaši posjeduju različitu populaciju bakterija na koži, škrgama te u probavnom traktu. Pored toga, unutarnji organi (bubrezi, jetra i slezena) zdrave ribe mogu također sadržavati bakterije. Stoga je cilj ovog istraživanja bio izolirati i identificirati mikrobnu populaciju lubina (Dicentrarchus labrax), dagnji (Mytilus galloprovincialis) i kamenica (Ostrea edulis) Jadranskog mora tijekom zimskog perioda. Od ukupno 15 uzoraka 5 je uzoraka bilo kontaminirano bakterijama iz roda Vibrio, iz 4 uzorka je izolirana E. coli, 5 uzoraka su bila pozitivna na sulfitoreducirajuće klostridije dok je Pseudomonas aeruginosa dokazan samo u uzorcima dagnji i kamenica. U svim uzorcima lubina su dokazane enterobakterije. U niti jednom uzorku lubina i školjkaša nije dokazana prisutnost bakterija iz roda Salmonella kao ni Listeria monocytogenes. Bakterije mliječne kiseline su izolirane iz samo jednog uzorka lubina i to rod Lactobacillus. Fizikalno-kemijska analiza mesa ribe pokazala je da meso ima zadovoljavajući pH, histamin nije detektiran, odnosno koncentracija je bila ispod granice detekcije dok je koncentracija trimetilamina iznosila niskih 0,801±0,58 mgN/100 g mesa.The results of numerous studies indicate that fish and shellfish have a different population of bacteria on the skin, gills and digestive tract. In addition, the internal organs (kidneys, liver and spleen) of healthy fish may also contain bacteria. Therefore, the aim of this study was to isolate and identify microbial population of sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax), mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) and oysters (Ostrea edulis) from the Adriatic Sea during the winter period. Out of a total of 15 samples 5 samples were contaminated with bacteria of the genus Vibrio, E. coli was isolated from 4 samples, 5 samples were positive for sulphite reducing clostridia while Pseudomonas aeruginosa was present only in samples of mussels and oysters. In all the samples of sea bass enterobacteria were found. Bacteria from the genus Salmonella as well as Listeria monocytogenes were not detected in any of samples of sea bass and shellfish.. Lactic acid bacteria, genus Lactobacillus, were isolated from only one sample of sea bass. Physico-chemical analysis of fish showed that the meat had a satisfactory pH, histamine was not detected, ie the concentration was below the detection limit while the concentration of trimethylamine was low 0.801±0,58 mg / 100 g of meat.
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NaslovToxicogenic fungi and the occurrence of mycotoxins in traditional meat products / Manuela Zadravec, Ksenija Markov, Jadranka Frece, Irena Perković, Željko Jakopović, Tina Lešić, Mario Mitak, Jelka Pleadin.
Materijalni opisIlustr.
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OpisDuring ripening, the surface of dry traditional meat products (TMPs) becomes overgrown by fungi of the Penicillium spp., Aspergillus spp. and Eurotium spp. whose spores mostly come from the environment in which the ripening chambers are placed. Certain fungi species is often responsible for the occurrence of toxic compounds termed the mycotoxins, among which of the outermost importance in connection with meat products are aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and ochratoxin A (OTA). Besides, some other mycotoxins such as citrinin (CIT), cyclopiazonic acid (CPA) and sterigmatocystin (STC) can also be present, but their impact on the quality and safety of meat products, and therefore also on human health, has still not been fully clarified. As control and prevention of toxicogenic fungi growth are key factors to the prevention of mycotoxin presence in dry-cured TMPs, levels of mycotoxin contamination, mycotoxin-producing mould species and factors of relevance for mycotoxin production, such as climate, should be determined.
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NaslovUklanjanje kompleksa β-glukan-AFM1 iz mlijeka / Željko Jakopović, Iva Čanak, Jadranka Frece, Jasna Bošnir, Martina Ivešić, Željka Kuharić, Željka Pavlek, Ksenija Markov.
Materijalni opisIlustr.
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OpisMikotoksini su sekundarni metaboliti toksikotvornih plijesni te su česti kontaminanti raznih prehrambenih proizvoda. Pojava aflatoksina M1 (AFM1) u mlijeku, prijetnja je zdravlju potrošača, posebice maloj djeci te dovodi do ekonomskih gubitaka zbog zbrinjavanja kontaminiranog mlijeka. Metode uklanjanja i/ili redukcije mikotoksina koje se koriste u prehrambenoj industriji troše velike količine energije i kemijskih sredstava, stoga biološke metode sve više dobivaju na značaju zbog svoje netoksičnosti i ekološkog aspekta. Cilj ovog rada je bio odrediti količinu nevezanog AFM1 nakon uklanjanja kompleksa β-glukan-AFM1 pomoću Centricon 70 Plus, MWCO 100 kDa filtera. U radu je upotrijebljen komercijalni β-glukan dobiven iz zobi i β-glukan izoliran iz biomase kvasca. Rezultati istraživanja ukazuju da je nakon uklanjanja kompleksa β-glukan-AFM1 u uzorku mlijeka zaostalo 35% AFM1 u slučaju kada je β-glukan dobiven iz zobi, odnosno 36,4% AFM1 kada je β-glukan izoliran iz kvasca.Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites of toxic molds and are common contaminants of various food products. The appearance of aflatoxin M1 (AFM1 ) in milk is a threat to consumers' health, especially to small children and leads to economic losses due to the disposal of contaminated milk. Methods of removal and/or reduction of mycotoxins used in the food industry consume large amounts of energy and chemical resources, so biological methods are increasingly gaining importance beacause of its non-toxicity and ecological aspect. The aim of this study was to determine the amount of unbound AFM1 after removing the β-glucan-AFM1 complex using Centricon 70 Plus, MWCO 100 kDa filter. The commercial β-glucan obtained from oats and β-glucan isolated from yeast biomass were used in this paper. The results show that after the removal of complexes in the milk sample, level of retained AFM1 was 35% for b-glucan obtained from oats and 36.4% for β-glucan isolated from yeast, respectively.
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NaslovUsporedba vezanja AFM1 iz mlijeka živim, mrtvim i liofiliziranim stanicama BMK / Željko Jakopović, Iva Čanak, Anamarija Romac, Željka Kuharić, Jasna Bošnir, Martina Ivešić, Jadranka Frece, Željka Pavlek, Ksenija Markov.
Materijalni opisIlustr.
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Vrstačlanak
OpisMikotoksini su sekundarni metaboliti niske molekulske mase koje sintetiziraju plijesni iz rodova Aspergillus, Penicillium i Fusarium te su česti kontaminanti raznovrsnih prehrambenih proizvoda. Kako bi se smanjio rast plijesni, a time i udio mikotoksina u namirnicama, koriste se razne fizikalne i kemijske metode. Posljednjih nekoliko godina ispituje se učinak bakterija mliječne kiseline (BMK) na sposobnost inhibicije rasta plijesni i njihova uloga u uklanjanju mikotoksina iz kontaminirane hrane. Zbog svojih, po zdravlje korisnih svojstava, bakterije mliječne kiseline predstavljaju izvrsno rješenje za tretiranje namirnica kontaminiranih mikotoksinima. Cilj ovog rada bio je ispitati i usporediti sposobnosti, živih, mrtvih i liofiliziranih stanica BMK na vezanje aflatoksina M1 (AFM1) u umjetno kontaminiranom mlijeku. Ovisno o korištenom soju, vremenu inkubacije i tretmanu, uspješnost vezanja AFM1 stanicama BMK iznosila je 23,73-94,49%. Liofilizirane stanice ispitivanih sojeva BMK manje (p<0,05) vežu AFM1 u mlijeku, a jedini izuzetak su stanice Lactobacillus rhamnosus KM koje nakon 4 sata vežu AFM1 u najvećem postotku (>90%). Najveća razlika u uspješnosti vezanja AFM1 između mrtvih i liofiliziranih stanica uočljiva je kod soja L. rhamnosus KM i iznosi 62,49% dok su razlike u vezanju AFM1 najmanje kod Lactococcus lactis 5MS1. Koncentracija slobodnog AFM1 u mlijeku nakon tretiranja BMK određivana je visoko djelotvornom tekućinskom kromatografijom (HPLC).Mycotoxins are secondary low molecular weight metabolites synthesized by some filamentous fungi (mainly Aspergillus, Penicillium and Fusarium) and are common contaminants of various food products. In order to reduce the growth of mold, and thus the share of mycotoxins in foods, various physical and chemical methods are used. In the last few years, the effect of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) on the ability to inhibit mold growth and the role of eliminating mycotoxins from contaminated food has beed studied. Because of their beneficial properties on consumers health, lactic acid bacteria are an excellent solution for treating foods contaminated with mycotoxins. The aim of this paper was to examine and compare the ability of viable, dead and lyophilized cells of LAB to bind aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) in artificially contaminated milk. Depending on the strain used, time of incubation and treatment, binding of AFM1 with LAB cells was 23.73-94.49%. The lyophilized cells of the tested LAB strains bind AFM1 less (p<0.05) with the only exception being Lactobacillus rhamnosus KM cells that bind AFM1 at the highest percentage (>90%) after 4 hours. The greatest differance in the performance of AFM1 binding between dead and lyophilized cells was observed in L. rhamnosus KM strain (62.49%) while smallest differences in AFM1 binding were observed with Lactococcus lactis 5MS1. Free AFM1 concentration in milk, after LAB treatment was determined by High Preformance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC).
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