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3.746 (3.671-3.680)
NaslovConferences as a tool for interdisciplinary (postgraduate) learning in bioethics / Emma Nottingham, Alexander Chrysanthou.
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OpisIn recent years, alongside the general advancement of bioethics in a range of professions, bioethics conferences, both at a national and international level, have developed and become increasingly popular. One challenge for those learning bioethics is often to engage with disciplines outside their own, for instance by exploring new methodological approaches or theoretical frameworks. The interdisciplinary nature of bioethics motivates the development of different forms of interdisciplinary learning. In this paper, the authors discuss the role of bioethics conferences that, it is argued, serve as an important tool for interdisciplinary learning and interaction in bioethics. Special reference is given to the Postgraduate Bioethics Conference, which the authors convened in 2014 and have since overseen, to demonstrate how such a conference can assist learning in bioethics.Posljednjih godina, uz opći napredak bioetike u nizu profesija, konferencije bioetike razvilesu se i postale sve popularnije, kako na nacionalnoj tako i na međunarodnoj razini. Jedan od izazova onima koji se bave bioetikom je često bavljenje drugim disciplinama, koje nisu njihove, primjerice, istraživanje novih metodoloških pristupa ili teorijskih okvira. Interdisciplinarna priroda bioetike motivira razvoj različitih oblika interdisciplinarnog učenja. U radu autori raspravljaju o ulozi konferencija o bioetici koje, smatra se, služe kao važan instrument za interdisciplinarno učenje i interakciju u bioetici. Posebna pozornost posvećuje se Poslijediplomskoj konferenciji bioetike koju su autori sazvali 2014. i koju od tada prate, kako bi pokazali kako takva konferencija može pomoći u učenju u bioetici.
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3.671
NaslovA practical comparison between Islamic and Christian end-of-life moral guidelines towards harmonization of end-of-life care / Pierre Mallia.
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OpisThis paper aims to identify common ground on end-of-life issues between the Islamic and Christian cultures. Since these two cultures are more and more coming to live in the same countries, it is important to acknowledge common ground since the laws of countries apply to all. The paper will deal with several issues, including the stopping of futile treatment, the administration of ordinary and extraordinary care, defining the difference between death and allowing one to die, and accepting death as sometimes being an inevitable and acceptable outcome. The paper will also discuss palliative care including pain relief and sedation. From here one delves into the case of Persistent Vegetative States and the morality of over-enthusiastic treatment which pushes people into this state.It will also focus on the differences, such as passive euthanasia and analyze whether this is merely a difference in the interpretation of terms. There is also a phenomenon in some countries on querying the removal futile treatment and on lacking a legal framework in general on end-of-life. At least one study shows concern on religious moral grounds. The conclusion attempts to identify the common grounds on the end-of-life and whether morality and laws in this regard are guided by religious positions. It is important that laws respect the moral normative values of populations, especially with pressure coming from more liberal positions. Even if practices such as euthanasia (the discussion of which is not the scope of this paper) are introduced in countries, it is important that health care (and legislation) recognizes the common moral ground, the lack of which may lead to more suffering.Cilj rada je utvrditi zajedničko stajalište između islamskih i kršćanskih kultura upitanjima o kraju života. Budući da ove dvije kulture sve više dijele zajednički životu istim zemljama, važno je utvrditi zajedničko stajalište, jer se zakoni u zemljamaodnose na sve. Rad uključuje nekoliko pitanja, uključujući prekidanje nepotrebnogliječenja, primjenu redovite i izvanredne skrbi, definiranje razlika između smrti idopuštenju osobi da umre te prihvaćanje smrti kao ponekad uistinu neizbježnogi prihvatljivog ishoda. U radu će se također raspravljati o palijativnoj skrbi, kojauključuje ublažavanje bola i sedaciju, a u kojoj se zadire u slučaj stalnih vegetativnihstanja i moralnosti pretjerano entuzijastičnog liječenja, zbog kojeg ljudi zapadajuu to stanje. Fokus rada će također biti na razlikama, kao što je pasivna eutanazija,i analizi je li razlika samo u tumačenju pojmova. U nekim zemljama vidljiva je ipojava u vezi s propitivanjem nepotrebnog liječenja i općenito nedostatka zakonskogokvira o kraju života. U barem jednoj studiji uočena je zabrinutost zbog vjerskihmoralnih razloga. U zaključku se pokušavaju utvrditi zajedničke osnove vezane uzskrb na kraju života i jesu li moralnost i zakoni u tom pogledu vođeni vjerskimpozicijama. Važno je da zakoni poštuju moralne normativne vrijednosti stanovništva,osobito pod pritiskom koji dolazi od strane liberalnijih pozicija. Čak i ako se uzemljama uvede praksa poput eutanazije (koja nije dio rasprave ovog rada), važno jeda zdravstvena zaštita (i zakonodavstvo) prepoznaju zajedničke moralne osnove čijinedostatak može dovesti do veće patnje.
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3.672
NaslovMedical secret as a basis of medical confidence in relation doctor-patient : a view from healthcare system of the Republic of Serbia / Dragana Denić.
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OpisThe medical secret is one of the foundations of medical ethics and medical employees’ moral obligations, and it refers to the principle of not disclosing confidential information about the patient. Hippocrates considered the obligation to keep a medical secret to be the “sacred duty” of a physician. The medical secret was initially cultivated as ‘the know-how to remain silent’ (ars muta), while in the 18th century it becomes a legal duty that would be sanctioned according to the criminal law. Divulging a medical secret could thus lead to a criminal conviction, the obligation of compensation, and the responsibility in front of the court for medical employees.The main purpose of the keeping a medical secret is to protect patients’ interests, which follow from his constitutional rights to human dignity and privacy. The specific importance of a medical secret is attributed to it being a foundation of patients’ trust to medical employees, and this has an influence on the quality of administering medical care and on a better functioning of the medical system as a whole.The question is now how to secure the due respect and keeping of a medical secret in such a system, that is to say, how to revise this old-fashioned concept and adjust it to the reality? It is necessary to take a number of legal, organizational and technical steps by means of which a reasonable protection of privacy would be achieved. With respect to that, it is necessary to have a continued education in the domain of medical ethics of not only all of the medical employees, but also of data scientists and lawyers, because it is only the synergetic effort that will give the desired results.The investigated matter is primarily elaborated from the viewpoint of the Republic of Serbia healthcare system.Medicinska tajna je u osnovi medicinske etike i moralne obveze zdravstvenih radnika, a odnosi se na princip čuvanja povjerljivih informacija o pacijentu. Obavezu čuvanja medicinske tajne još je Hipokrat smatrao ‚‚svetom dužnošću“ liječnika. U početku njegovana kao ‚‚vještina šutnje“ (ars muta), od 18. stoljeća postaje i pravna obveza sankcionirana u krivičnim zakonicima. Otkrivanje liječničke tajne može uvjetovati krivičnu kaznu, obvezu naknade štete i disciplinsku odgovornost pred staleškim sudom za liječnike. Osnovna svrha čuvanja medicinske tajne je zaštita pacijentovih interesa, što proizlazi iz njegovih ustavom zagarantiranih prava na ljudsko dostojanstvo i privatnost. Specifični značaj medicinske tajne leži u tome što na njoj počiva povjerenje bolesnika u zdravstvenog radnika, a to utječe na kvalitetu obavljanja zdravstvene djelatnosti i bolju funkcionalnost zdravstvenog sustava u cjelini. Postavlja se pitanje kako u takvom sustavu osigurati dosljedno poštovanje i čuvanje medicinske tajne, odnosno kako jedan ‚‚pohabani koncept“ revidirati i primjeriti realnosti? Potrebno je poduzeti niz mjera pravne, organizacijske i tehničke prirode, kojima bi se postigla razumna mjera zaštite privatnosti. S tim u vezi neophodna je kontinuirana edukacije iz medicinske etike svih medicinskih zaposlenika, ali i informatičara i pravnika, jer će samo sinergijski učinak dati željene rezultate. Istraživana građa prvenstveno je elaborirana iz perspektive zdravstvenog sustava Republike Srbije.
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3.673
NaslovAchievement goals and self-determination in adult football players : a cluster analysis / Hugo Sarmento, Miguel Peralta, Liam Harper, Vasco Vaz, Adilson Marques.
Materijalni opisIlustr.
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OpisTo better understand the relationship between aspects of motivation and performance level in adult football players, this study aimed to identify differences in motivation among different motivational profiles created by means of hierarchical cluster analysis. The participants were 304 adult football players (90 professionals, 144 semi-professionals, 70 amateurs, age: 25.4±4.6 years). Participants completed the Task and Ego Orientation in Sports Questionnaire and the Self-Regulation Questionnaire. Based on the constructs of the questionnaires, cluster analyses were performed. Chi-square was used to determine any relationships between the players and clusters. Four different clusters were identified. There was no typical motivational profile for football players of different competition levels. However, the differences in all four clusters represented specific characteristics of football players of different competition levels most represented in each respective cluster. Cluster 1, which was the most adaptive, was not related to any competition level. On the other hand, professional athletes were significantly less represented in the least adaptive motivational profile (Cluster 4). The results highlight the complex relationship between competition and sporting motivation. Identifying the motivational profile characteristics of football players who can reach higher competition levels presents itself as a future research opportunity.
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3.674
NaslovComparison of the talk test and percent heart rate reserve for exercise prescription / John P. Porcari, Katelyn Falck-Wiese, Samantha Suckow-Stenger, Jillian Turek, Anna Wargowsky, Maria L. Cress, Scott T. Doberstein, Chelsea J. Hahn, Abigail L. Ryskey, Carl Foster.
Materijalni opisIlustr.
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OpisExercise intensity is traditionally prescribed using %HRmax, %HRR, %VO2max, or %VO2R. Recently, the Talk Test (TT) has been proposed as an alternative method to guide exercise intensity. However, it is unknown if prescribing exercise intensity solely using the TT can provoke training responses that are comparable to traditional guidelines. This study compared the responses to training using either the TT or %HRR. Forty-four subjects (17 males and 27 females: age=20.4±3.02 years; body height=170.5±9.79 cm; body weight=71.9±13.63 kg) completed an incremental maximal cycle ergometer test, were stratified by VO2max and gender, and randomly assigned to training groups guided by either %HRR (n=20) or the TT (n=24). Both groups completed 40-minute training sessions three days per week for 10 weeks. In the HRR group, exercise intensity was targeted (per ACSM guidelines) at 40-59% HRR for weeks 1-4, 50-59% HRR for weeks 5-8, and 60-79% HRR for weeks 9-10. In the TT group, exercise intensity was targeted at the highest power output (PO) that still allowed for comfortable speech. Changes in VO2max, peak power output (PPO), VO2 at ventilatory threshold (VT), and PO at VT were compared between the groups using two-way ANOVA with repeated measures. There were significant (p<.05) pre vs. post increases in VO2max (TT=10.6%; HRR=11.5%), PPO (TT=19%; HR=14%), VO2 at VT (T=32.7%; HRR=56.9%), and PO at VT (TT=43.1%; HRR=38.6%) in both groups, with no significant (p>0.05) interaction effect. Guiding exercise prescription using the TT is a simple and effective method for prescribing exercise intensity and elicits improvements in exercise performance that are comparable to the traditional %HRR guidelines.
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3.675
NaslovNo immediate effects of highly cushioned shoes on basic running biomechanics / Naoko Aminaka, Kevin Arthur, John P. Porcari, Carl Foster, Maria Cress, Chelsea Hahn.
Materijalni opisIlustr.
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OpisThe aim of the study was to investigate the effects of highly cushioned shoes on running biomechanics. Sixteen recreational runners (8 males, 8 females) participated and ran at a self-selected pace across the force platform in the research laboratory wearing either the standard or highly cushioned shoes, in randomized order. Impact peak (IP), loading rate to IP (LR), active peak (AP), contact time (CT), strike index (SI), running velocity, and knee and ankle kinematics at initial contact (IC) and AP were recorded during the running trials. Overall, there was no effect of footwear on IP, LR, AP, CT and velocity (p>.05) with smalleffect sizes (ES<0.2). The highly cushioned shoes resulted in a more anterior foot strike pattern, based on the slightly higher SI (p=.03, ES=0.5), although the runners demonstrated a rearfoot strike pattern regardless of shoe condition. No kinematic differences were observed at IC or AP, across shoe conditions (p>.05). Our results indicate that the highly cushioned shoes did not show immediate changes in running biomechanics.
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3.676
NaslovPhysical activity and dietary habits of Filipino college students : a cross-sectional study / Elizabeth Acampado, Madonna Valenzuela.
Materijalni opisIlustr.
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OpisNo published study has been tracked to date on the physical activity (PA) and dietary habits (DH) of Filipino college students. Thus, this cross-sectional study aimed to determine (1) the prevalence of regular PA among college students in a Philippine setting and (2) the reasons for either adherence to PA or for being inactive, (3) to describe DH of the students, (4) to compare PA involvement and DH across year levels, and (5) to correlate PA and diet behaviors. Data were collected using a self-administered survey questionnaire. Results showed that only 32.8% of the 1,706 students in this study engaged in regular PA. There were greater proportions of inactivity at higher-year levels (62.5%, 66.5%, 76.5%, and 84.8% in the first, second, third and fourth year, respectively). The major reason for inactivity was lack of time, while the students’ PA adherence was largely due to predisposing factors such as knowledge about PA, beliefs in benefits and enjoyment of PA, and confidence in performing physical activity. About one of every three students in each year level had below-average to poor dietary habits, meaning they seldom eat proper types of food. Findings of this study indicate the need for an intervention that will effectively increase regular PA and ensure proper food intake in the student population.
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3.677
NaslovExploring game performance in NBA playoffs / Nuno Mateus, Bruno Gonçalves, Eduardo Abade, Nuno Leite, Miguel Angel Gomez, Jaime Sampaio.
Materijalni opisIlustr.
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Vrstačlanak
OpisThis study aimed to identify performance profiles in NBA playoffs and describe performances in the first and the last games of the series. Thirty games from the official box-scores and player-tracking data of the 2014/15 NBA playoffs were considered. A k-means cluster analysis was performed to group the players according to their game performance profiles and a discriminant analysis was conducted to identify the game-related statistics that best discriminated the groups. The first function correctly classified 64.2% of the cases and the second function classified 29.9% of the cases. The cluster analysis identified four different performance profiles and from the discriminant analysis emerged several offensive and defensive variables to classify the players in the clusters. The identified trends help to improve understanding of the game during different stages of playoffs. Coaches may use this information to better prepare their teams for different game scenarios.
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3.678
NaslovEffects of block and daily undulating periodization on neuromuscular performance in young male handball players / Rafael Sabido, Jose Luis Hernández-Davó, Javier Botella, Adrián Jiménez-Leiva, Jaime Fernández-Fernández.
Materijalni opisIlustr.
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OpisThe purpose of the present study was to compare block periodization (BP) and daily undulating periodization (DUP) in eliciting changes in strength, jumping performance and throwing velocity in young male handball players. Fifteen players, of the same competitive level, were assigned to one of the periodization groups (DUP=9; BP=6). Pre- and post-tests included a one repetition maximum (1 RM) back squat, countermovement jump (CMJ), triple jump with the left and right leg, 20 m speed test, standing medicine ball throw, 7 m standing throw, and 9 m jumping throw. Strength training was performed twice a week throughout an 8-week period. The BP group performed training phases in the following order: hypertrophy, power strength and explosive strength; DUP alternated every week two sessions with a different focus. Total volume and intensity during the 8-week period were equal in both training groups. Despite both groups significantly improved 1 RM squat (33.3%, effect size [ES]=1.48 for DUP and 17.4%, ES=1.40 for BP) and triple jump (4-6.3%, ES=0.32-0.51 for DUP and 9.7-12.7%, ES=1.40 for BP) performance, greater gains (ES=0.96) were detected in DUP for the 9 m throwing velocity. No significant changes were found in either group for the 20 m sprint and CMJ. It can be concluded that both periodization programs elicited significant improvements in maximal strength and jumping performance in young male handball players, while DUP was more effective than BP on throwing velocity.
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3.679
NaslovEnergy expenditure of type-specific sedentary behaviors estimated using sensewear mini armband : a metabolic chamber validation study among adolescents / Jing Jin, Jie Zhuang, Zheng Zhu, Siya Wang, Peijie Chen, Weimo Zhu.
Materijalni opisIlustr.
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OpisSenseWear Mini Armband, an accelerometer with multiple physiological sensors, could be a practical means to estimate energy expenditure (EE) of children and adolescents, but its validity reported for these age groups has not been consistent within the literature. EE of twenty-six healthy Chinese 12-year-old adolescents was measured simultaneously using both SenseWear Mini Armband (SWMA) and metabolic chamber (MC) during a 16-hour stay in a MC. SWMA systematically underestimated the adolescents’ EE during sedentary behaviors, resting metabolic rate (RMR), basal metabolic rate (BMR), and total EE, with the absolute error rate ranging from 14.85% to 28.65%. The SWMA significantly underestimated EE compared with MC in Chinese adolescents. However, the amount of error can be reduced by applying correction equation proposed in this study.
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3.680
3.746 (3.671-3.680)