beta
Probrano po
4.000 (3.951-3.960)
NaslovSokol : between making nation and state / Tomaž Pavlin, Zrinko Čustonja.
Suradnik-osobaČustonja, Zrinko
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Vrstačlanak
OpisThe Sokol gymnastic movement was an important part of civil societies of Slavic nations. The first Sokol society within Yugoslavian nations (Slovenes, Croats, Serbs) was founded in 1863 in Ljubljana and in a few decades, it spread throughout the Slovene, Croatian, and Serbian territories. In the Austro-Hungarian period before WWI, Sokol valued itself as a national, liberal and emancipation-seeking movement, based on the Tyrsch’s gymnastics and national and pan-Slavic idea. In 1919, following the end of WWI and with the formation of the Yugoslav state, the national Sokol organisations merged in the centralised Yugoslav Sokol Union. The Yugoslavian state went through difficult political situations and confrontations in the first decade, which culminated in the summer of 1928 with shooting in the parliament in Belgrade. In attempting to solve the situation, King Aleksandar Karadjordjević proclaimed the so-called Sixth January Dictatorship (1929). Consequently, the government, with the approval of the King, adopted, on the 4th of December 1929, the law on establishing of a new all-state gymnastic organisation Sokol of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia. The new Sokol organisation, based on the Sokolism of the former Yugoslav Sokol (Sokol’s gymnastics, principles, national-liberal and Slavic idea) was constituted at the beginning of 1930. It was supported by the King and government and the King’s son, Prince Petar became the leader of the Sokol organisation. After the assassination of king Aleksandar (1934), in the filling-in period of Prince Pavle (1935-41) and government of the Prime Minister Milan Stojadinović (1935-39), Sokol of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia fell out of political grace in the western Roman-Catholic regions and it had to defend its position.
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3.951
NaslovEffects of small-sided games and conventional aerobic interval training on various physiological characteristics and defensive and offensive skills used in soccer / İlker Özcan, Niyazi Eniseler, Çağatay Şahan.
Materijalni opisIlustr.
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OpisThe aim of this study was to investigate the effects of small-sided game training (SSGT) versus conventional aerobic interval training (CAIT) on soccer-specific endurance performance, lactate threshold levels (mmol·L-1), short-passing ability and defensive and offensive skills of a soccer match. Before and after a 6-week training intervention period, eighteen amateur soccer players (age 21.8±4.8 years) were tested. The tests included the anaerobic threshold (AnT) test, the Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test Level 1 (Yo-Yo IR1), and the Loughborough Soccer Passing Test (LSPT). A manual notational match analysis system was utilized to evaluate the defensive and offensive skills of players during the matches. Both the SSGT and CAIT were performed two days a week and consisted of five sets of 6-minute periods of work at the individualized exercise intensity corresponding to the individual anaerobic threshold, with 3-minute of recovery periods between sets. Mann-Whitney U and Wilcoxon signed rank tests were used to examine the between- and within-group differences, respectively. Statistical analyses revealed that the SSGT group players exhibited significantly better in terms of the LSPT scores (p<.01) and the number of defensive and offensive skills (p<.05). However, no other significant differences in the other variables were observed (p>.05). The results of the study suggested that SSGT improved short-passing ability, various soccer skills and physiological parameters, while CAIT only improved physiological parameters. SSGT improves soccer-specific endurance and technical ability of players at the same time, meaning it is a time efficient way of training.
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3.952
NaslovEffects of a 5-minute classroom-based physical activity on on-task behaviour and physical activity levels / Hrvoje Podnar, Dario Novak, Ivan Radman.
Materijalni opisIlustr.
Suradnik-osobaRadman, Ivan,Novak, Dario,
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OpisThe objective was to explore the effectiveness of a five-minute classroom-based physical activity (5min-Class-PA) to keep student behaviour on task while increasing PA and energy expenditure during school days. The multiple baselines across subjects’ design was implemented to assess on-task behaviour during academic lessons (e.g., Mathematics, Science, Language, Art). Observers were blinded to study condition. A quasi-experimental design was implemented to assess PA volume and energy expenditure using SenseWear Armband body monitor (BodyMedia Inc., Pittsburgh, PA, USA). A convenience sample of elementary school pupils (aged 6-10 years) was observed. A total of eight class departments or two class departments per grade (first to fourth) were included by random selection. All pupils from the selected class departments were asked to participate (total 149) and 126 (85%) had no health aberrations and returned parent signed informed agreement on participation. Five-minute PA daily was performed in the middle of a 45-min academic lesson by imitating video animations projected on the school board for 12 weeks. The aims were to assess on-task behaviour during academic lessons and physical activity volume and energy expenditure during a school day. When the 5min-Class-PA was implemented, initially high on-task behaviour during the first part of the lesson (91.42% and 94.8% for 6-8- and 8-10-year-olds, respectively) was not significantly changed after the 5min-Class-PA. In contrast, when the 5min-Class-PA was not implemented, on-task behaviour during the second part of the lesson decreased (by 3% and 4% for 6-8- and 8-10-year-olds, respectively). After the 5min-Class-PA was systematically introduced, on-task behaviour systematically improved. The results of the implementation of the classroom-based PA also indicated a small, non-significant increase in PA levels and energy expenditure during the school day, but also a non-significant increase in sedentary time.
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3.953
NaslovSpeed-based high-intensity interval approach as an alternative to heart rate training : similar gain with less pain / Maryam Rabbani, Effat Bambaeichi, Fahimeh Esfarjani, Alireza Rabbani.
Materijalni opisIlustr.
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OpisThe aims of this study were to: 1) compare the effects of speed-based versus heart-rate-based high-intensity interval training (HIT) on changes in high-intensity intermittent running performance, and 2) examine between-group differences in heart rate (HR) and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) responses during the training sessions. Sixteen female students were divided into the HR-based (n=8, M±SD, age 17.3±0.2 years, body mass, 59.2±5.7 kg, and body height, 167.8±2.2 cm) and speed-based (n=8, age 17.2±0.3 years, body mass, 57.7±6.4 kg, and body height, 171.0±5.1 cm) groups before commencing the HIT intervention. After completing five weeks of HIT, both the HR-based and speed-based groups showed most likely moderate enhancement in high-intensity intermittent running performance (+9%, 90% confidence limits [CL] [6.4; 11.7]; standardized change [ES] +1.04 [0.75; 1.33]) and (+9.2%, [6.0; 12.5]; +1.09 [0.73; 1.46]), respectively. However, the difference between the experimental groups with regards to changes in high-intensity running performance was trivial. Between-group differences of weekly average HR and RPE responses showed trivial to moderate (ES range; -0.95; 0.15) and moderate to very large (ES: -0.63; -2.88) values, respectively. Although it seems that both the speed-based and HR-based HIT approaches have some limitations when implementing for HIT individualization, using the speed reached at the end of the 30-15 Intermittent Fitness test (VIFT) seems to elicit the same performance enhancement, but with lower psychophysiological responses during short-term interventions.
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3.954
NaslovOlympic and Paralympic Games Rio 2016 : a technical-tactical analysis of judo matches / Rafael Lima Kons, Jorge Nelson Da Silva Júnior, Gabriela Fischer, Daniele Detanico.
Materijalni opisIlustr.
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OpisThe purpose of this study was to compare the athletes’ scores, penalties and efficiency between the Olympic and Paralympic Games Rio 2016, and identify which variable determined the winner of the matches. A total of 608 matches in the Olympic and Paralympic Games were analysed. Total relative scores (ippon, waza ari and yuko), penalties (shido per match) and efficiency were identified in the male and female categories, Olympic and Paralympic Games, and medallists and non-medallists. The main results showed that waza ari was higher in the Olympic Games (p=.05) than in the Paralympic Games (male team); ippon was higher in the Paralympic Games (p=.05) and shido was higher in the Olympic Games (p=.05) (female team). The male Olympic medallists were more efficient (p=.01), while the female Paralympic medallists were less penalised (p=.01). Ippon was the key variable that determined winning in both the Olympic and Paralympic matches (p<.001). We concluded that the male Olympic judo athletes showed greater efficiency and scores than Paralympians, while the female team presented more scores and fewer penalties. Ippon was the key point that determined victory in most of the matches.
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3.955
NaslovAntecedents of flow and the flow-performance relationship in cricket / Stefan Koehn, Benjamin Donald, Galina Paramei.
Materijalni opisIlustr.
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OpisThe present study aspires to elaborate on the conceptual framework of flow by further elucidating integration and conceptualization of a relationship between flow and objective and subjective measures of performance. The aims of the study were twofold: (1) to examine the relationship between flow and its key correlates, anxiety, motivation, and perceived ability; (2) to assess whether the relationship between these measures and performance is direct or mediated. Participant sample included a group of cricketers with varying performance level (n = 40) and a group of 20 non-cricket team athletes; all were between 18 and 35 years of age. Their performance was assessed objectively by batting average, along with administering the Dispositional Flow Scale (DFS), Sport Anxiety Scale (SAS), Sport Motivation Scale (SMS), and Perceived Sport Ability (PSA) questionnaires. Results show that the three flow correlates accounted for 77% of dispositional flow variance; individual correlates varied, however, in their predicting power, anxiety: 0%; motivation: 1%; perceived ability: 57%. In addition, total flow and flow correlates accounted for a total of 54% of variance in performance, whereas unique variance of 8% was accounted for by anxiety and perceived ability, each. Notably, flow and two correlates, anxiety and perceived ability, were found to have a direct impact on performance; in contrast, a weak partial mediation of flow was found between motivation and performance. Based on the findings on the flow-performance relationship, expansion of the flow theory is suggested; benefits for advancing intervention research in sport psychology are discussed.
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3.956
NaslovMale sex hormones response after a month-long Himalayas trek in relation to hemoglobin oxygen saturation / Lana Ružić, Maja Cigrovski Berković, Hrvoje Starčević, Dražen Lovrić, Branka R. Matković.
Materijalni opisIlustr.
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OpisHigh-altitude tourism is becoming increasingly popular among non-athletic population, but its potential impact on health is often neglected. This study investigated the changes in male sex hormones after the trek at altitudes between 1400 m and 6476 m. Seventeen recreational lowland men (age 48±11 years) participated in a 26-day Himalayan trek, with the highest point reached being Mera Peak. The initial measurements were performed 10 days before departure and included blood tests (total testosterone, sex hormone-binding globulin – SHBG, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate – DHEA-S, follicle stimulating hormone – FSH, and luteinizing hormone – LH) and ergometry on a treadmill. The final measurements were done 24 h after the return to 122 m (four days after reaching the altitude of 4300 m, and eight days after the altitude of 6476 m). During the tour, SpO2 and heart rate were measured 21 times. An increase in SHBG (42.6±10.6 to 50.7±12.0 nmol·L-1; p=.011), and subsequent decrease in calculated free testosterone (1.8±0.3 to 1.6±0.3%; p=.003) were observed. There was a significant correlation between the relative testosterone decrease and SHBG with mean SpO2 (Spearman R=-0.64 and 0.41, respectively). LH and FSH increased significantly (FSH Median/ IQR before=3.9/3.1-5.4 and after 4.6/4.0-7.1 IU·L-1; p=.001 and LH Median/IQR before=4.8/3.1-5.2 and after 5.9/4.9-9.3 IU·L-1; p=.008). The changes in LH and FSH did not correlate with SpO2, whereas the physical fitness levels (expressed in MET) did. The pituitary-adrenal-gonadal axis was affected by the altitude trek (involving physical exertion and hypoxia in combination), but the origin, duration and impact of changes in various aspects of men’s health should be further investigated.
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3.957
NaslovInfluence of schoolbag carriage on pattern changes in plantar pressure during walking among first-grade schoolchildren [Elektronička građa] / Mario Kasović, Martin Zvonar, Larisa Gomaz, Filip Bolčević, Vincent Anton.
Materijalni opisIlustr.
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Vrstačlanak
OpisThe aim of this study was to determine the influence of schoolbag carriage on pattern changes in plantar pressure during walking among schoolchildren of first grade. The sample consisted of 127 schoolchildren, 48.8% male (n = 62) and 51.2% female (n = 65), aged 6.7 (±0.5) years. The mean schoolbag weight was 4.2 kg (±0.7), which represented 16.9% (±3.9) of children’s body weight, thus exceeding the upper limit of the recommended 15% of the body weight and generally affecting their posture. The study has shown the statistically significant influence of the schoolbag on changes in plantar pressure pattern when walking in relation to walking without the schoolbag. Using a t-test for large dependent samples and by setting statistical significance at p≤.05, the significant increase was noticed in peak pressure for the forefoot (p=.000; 17.1%), midfoot (p=.000; 5.7%) and hindfoot (p=.004; 3.9%) as well as in average pressure for the midfoot (p=.005; 6.2%). Also, due to the compensatory mechanisms activated while the bag was being carried, the statistically significant increase in the contact surface at the forefoot (p=.000; 3.6%) and midfoot (p=.000, 8.8%) occurred.
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3.958
NaslovAnalysis of pacing strategies in 10 km open water swimming in international events / Jose M. Saavedra, Ingi Einarsson, Damir Sekulic, Antonio Garcia-Hermoso.
Materijalni opisIlustr.
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OpisThe purpose of this study was to ascertain the pacing strategies employed in 10 km open water swimming events, and to define which split time was most determinant for the final performance as a function of sex and classification in International Championships of the highest level. Six international competitions over the last five years were analysed retrospectively: Olympic Games, World Championships, and European Championships. The data corresponded to a total of 437 swimmers̕ competition histories (257 men, 180 women). A two-way analysis of variance (sex [2 levels: men, women], classification [3 levels: 1st to 3rd, 4th to 8th, 9th and below]) was performed for each split (0-2.5 km, 2.6-5.0 km, 5.1-7.5 km, and 7.6 to 10 km) and half (0-5 km, 5.1-10 km). The Bonferroni post-hoc test was used to compare means, and Pearson᾿s simple correlation coefficient to determine correlations between the split times and the final performance (total time). In general, the medal winners and the seconde tier classified swimmers, both men and women, employed a negative pacing strategy (the first half of the race was swum slower than the second). Women, however, in proportional terms swam a faster first partial (0 to 2.5 km) than men. These results could help coaches convince their swimmers that the first split of the event should be swum as slowly as possible, while still ensuring that they are in the leading group.
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NaslovEffects of barefoot and minimally shod footwear on effective mass : implications for transient musculoskeletal loading / Jonathan Sinclair, Philip Stainton, Sarah Jane Hobbs.
Materijalni opisIlustr.
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OpisThe purpose of this investigation was to explore the effects of barefoot and minimally shod footwear on effective mass, and determine the implications that this has for transient loading during running. Fifteen male runners ran at 4.0 m/s in five different footwear conditions (barefoot, running trainer, Nike-free, Inov-8 and Vibram five-fingers). Kinematics were collected using an 8 camera motion capture system and ground reaction forces via an embedded force platform. Effective mass was examined using impulse-momentum modelling and differences between footwear were examined using one-way repeated measures ANOVA. The findings showed that effective mass was significantly larger in the barefoot (11.47 %BW), Nike-free (9.81 %BW), Inov-8 (12.10 %BW) and Vibram five-fingers (8.84 %BW) compared to the running trainer (6.86 %BW). Furthermore, instantaneous loading rate was significantly larger in the barefoot (347.55 BW/s), Nike-free (178.76 BW/s), Inov-8 (369.93 BW/s) and Vibram five-fingers (339.37 BW/s) compared to the running trainer (133.18 BW/s). It was also revealed that there were significant positive associations between effective mass and the instantaneous rate of loading for each footwear. The findings from the current investigation indicate that effective mass has key implications for the generation of transient forces and also that running barefoot and in minimally shod footwear may place runners at increased risk from impact related injuries compared to the traditional running shoes.
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4.000 (3.951-3.960)